Snippets http://snippets.pro/ Sat, 28 Aug 2021 23:13:47 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://snippets.pro/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/snippets-icon-70x70.png Snippets http://snippets.pro/ 32 32 Sun Life Selects AWS As Cloud Technology Provider http://snippets.pro/sun-life-selects-aws-as-cloud-technology-provider/ http://snippets.pro/sun-life-selects-aws-as-cloud-technology-provider/#respond Sat, 28 Aug 2021 23:13:47 +0000 http://snippets.pro/sun-life-selects-aws-as-cloud-technology-provider/

Amazon Web Services (AWS), an Amazon.com company, announced that Sun Life has chosen AWS as its cloud technology provider.

Sun Life will use AWS cloud technologies, including analytics, machine learning, storage, security and databases, to improve operational efficiency.

AWS said Sun Life has become the first company in Canada to launch a cloud skills training program, which is now available to Sun Life employees. The program brings together Sun Life cloud experts alongside AWS instructors to provide peer-to-peer learning and hands-on training to develop cloud skills.

Over the next few months, Sun Life will certify the first 450 commercial and technical employees with this AWS program and continue to train more employees to help accelerate cloud adoption and develop new internal and customer-facing capabilities.

Sun Life has built Development Workspaces in North America and Innovation Labs in Asia to bring together IT teams and business leaders to innovate with AWS technologies. In Asia, for example, one of the labs created the Sun Life Secure Experience, which allows Sun Life advisors to collaborate virtually with clients through video conferencing and secure file sharing.

“AWS’s cloud technology portfolio helps us be predictive, proactive and personal in taking customer insights and translating it into new digital ways to meet their needs,” said Laura Money, Chief Information Officer and Executive Vice President, Sun Life.

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A closer look at dog training techniques: part two http://snippets.pro/a-closer-look-at-dog-training-techniques-part-two/ http://snippets.pro/a-closer-look-at-dog-training-techniques-part-two/#respond Sat, 28 Aug 2021 20:04:00 +0000 http://snippets.pro/a-closer-look-at-dog-training-techniques-part-two/

By Joan Hunter Mayer

Happy to see you again! In Part 1 of this two-part series, we defined three of the most common dog training philosophies: powerless, aversive, and “balanced”. We looked at how reinforcement and punishment relate to animal behavior and compared how each of the three techniques approaches the use of training collars, the use of rewards in training, and looked at what leading veterinary behaviorists are saying about the effects. animal welfare training styles.

In Part 2, the discussion continues with a more in-depth look at how each technique compares in terms of the time required, the potential for fallout, considering each dog as an individual, the effects of training methodologies. training on animal keepers and finally we think about what it can be like to walk a mile in the paws of our dogs.

Time commitment

Without force The methods encourage pet sitters to take the time to train their dogs and teach them the behaviors they want them to adopt in the future. A parent of a pet on the go may be disappointed that quick fixes don’t really work here. A training plan that helps keepers and dogs achieve their training goals can take time, patience, and commitment.

In order to prepare puppies for success, the emphasis is on prevention, teaching dog sitters to be “problem preventers” as well as “problem solvers”. Dog parents depend on their dog’s environment to plan ahead and prepare for real-life challenges with plenty of short, fun workouts to learn and reinforce desired behaviors.

Aversive – It’s easy for pet parents to find “experts” who guarantee a quick solution to many common challenges and easy for busy dog ​​sitters to find aversive collars that are sold to provide “feedback” to dogs in order to “correct” unwanted behavior.

‘Balance’ – Although correction-based and “balanced” training methods offer the apparent advantage of quick results, it can take a lot of time (and resources) down the road to try and undo any emotional fallout that may occur. .

Unintended consequences

We are human; and like our dogs, we sometimes make mistakes. So what happens to your dog, in each of the three scenarios, if you “mess” the method? We will take a look.

Without force – If you ‘accidentally’ give a treat at the wrong time, or if you are out of time, you may inadvertently reinforce unintentional behavior, such as jumping in the air instead of sitting down. But… the other side effect is that your dog receives an extra treat, thus strengthening the bond between you in a positive way – like a winter holiday bonus in July!

Aversive – On the flip side, an accidental bump or pinch can cause additional damage and inadvertently create a negative conditioned response to anything and everyone at that time, including you, other pets, and children. This means that people and places that evoked a happy response, or no reaction at all, could now trigger feelings of fear, anxiety, and stress in your dog.

‘Balance’ – Again, the risks of negative fallout are the same for “balanced” training as for aversive training methods because the focus is on behavior (s) and not on exploiting relationships trust and affection between man and dog.

All dogs are individuals

Without force The methods approach each dog as an individual and extend the same respect to the people who love them. The emphasis is on promoting the behaviors you want by using the rewards that best motivate your dog. At the same time, humane training is suitable for all races, all ages, and indeed all species. The basic concept that the reinforced behaviors are repeated holds true for miniature poodles, great danes, humans, dolphins, chickens, elephants… you get the idea.

Aversive – You might hear that “all dogs are individuals” means that some need a “heavier hand” in training. Take the previous example from the first part of a dog who has difficulty walking on a loose leash. Unlike this example where we researched the possible underlying causes of pulling behavior and how to address them, the solution offered in this category might involve a training collar that pinches, chokes, or shocks your dog to provide ‘feedback’ for it. “Help him to remember” not to shoot.

‘Balance’ training attempts to accommodate the individuality of dogs and their people by sometimes including the use of force, fear and intimidation in dog training. But not all the time.

Individual personality or breed differences do not change the fact that ethical concerns apply to all pets. As guardians, we have taken on an obligation to do our best to understand and meet their basic physical, mental and emotional needs and keep them safe and comfortable.

What’s in it for you?

Think about what to expect from your relationship with your dog as you sort through some of the important characteristics of each philosophy.

Without force the training aims to:

  • To ensure the general physical and mental well-being of dogs.
  • Use only efficient and humane techniques to create and maintain a harmonious home.
  • Strengthens the human-canine bond.
  • Help establish and foster relationships of love, joy, and mutual respect between pets and their families.
  • Help dogs learn to trust the training process and those who teach them.
  • Improve and enrich the lives of dogs so that they can thrive.
  • Offer dog sitters a stimulating way to limit inappropriate behavior, without dogs wearing uncomfortable devices.
  • Never ask pet parents to harm, hurt, scare, frighten or annoy their dogs.
  • Go beyond basic “obedience” techniques and develop valuable canine “parenting” skills that will allow you to raise a happy, healthy dog.

Aversive methods :

  • Often use training collars which sometimes alter unwanted behavior.
  • Ask some pet parents if training collars will hurt their dogs. Dog sitters may ask, “Is there a ‘right’ way to harm my dog? “
  • Can lead to a false sense of security. For example, electronic fence systems that use shock collars may not keep pets on the property and / or prevent predators from entering the property, leading to tragic consequences.
  • Can backfire on you, resulting in retaliation (a bite or attack) and a loose bond.
  • Risk of creating learned helplessness: Dogs fearing severe corrections may be so afraid to do anything that they decide not to do anything at all, appearing “lazy” and “distant” (when in fact they are traumatized and arrested).
  • Over time, dogs can become conditioned to the aversive stimulus and animal keepers will need to increase the intensity of the “correction” in an attempt to change behavior. Ask yourself, “How far are you willing to go?”

Balance‘ Coaching:

  • Has all the same disadvantages of aversive methods (due to the use of training collars and corrections).
  • Lacks the benefits of training without strength (because it is not without strength).

Is there a chance that you won’t deteriorate your relationship with your dog if you take a correction-based or “balanced” training approach? Yes – dogs are generally tolerant, loyal, resilient, and adaptable. Does that mean you should risk harming them when there are gentler, safer, and proven effective options?

Final thoughts

When you consider your many training options, their pros and cons, and the position of leading veterinary behavior organizations, there is one more voice to add to the mix: that of your dog. If given the option, would your dog choose training games and treats? Or be pinched, choked, or shocked when you engage in species-appropriate natural behaviors, such as sniffing or barking? Or a hodge-podge approach where she could be praised one moment and punished the next, not knowing what to do or who to trust?

The truth is, dogs don’t choose your training style. It’s yours. Our dogs trust us to speak for them and make the most scientifically and ethically informed decisions possible when it comes to their care. And that’s why training techniques are important to you and your curious dog.


The Inquisitive Canine was founded by Joan Hunter Mayer, Santa Barbara Canine Behavior Consultant and Certified Professional Dog Trainer. Joan and her team are dedicated to providing humane, pawsitive and practical solutions that address the challenges dogs and their humans face in everyday life. Let’s go to bark with the dogs, cheer on the humans and have fun!

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IISc completes technology transfer of oxygen concentrators to 24 companies http://snippets.pro/iisc-completes-technology-transfer-of-oxygen-concentrators-to-24-companies/ http://snippets.pro/iisc-completes-technology-transfer-of-oxygen-concentrators-to-24-companies/#respond Sat, 28 Aug 2021 17:26:38 +0000 http://snippets.pro/iisc-completes-technology-transfer-of-oxygen-concentrators-to-24-companies/

Over the past year, researchers at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) have been working on solutions to address the oxygen scarcity caused by COVID-19. Two key efforts in this direction have been the development of oxygen generating systems and oxygen concentrators.

The oxygen concentrator is an indigenous design developed by IISc researchers led by Praveen Ramamurthy, professor in the Department of Materials Engineering. The group had already been working on oxygen concentrators since March 2020. A prototype capable of producing oxygen at over 93% purity at five liters per minute (LPM) and 82% at 10 LPM was developed in August 2020 even. The researchers then modified this prototype which now delivers more than 93% pure oxygen at 10 LPM in three minutes. System stability and performance have been continuously monitored for over eight months. The clinical trials were completed and the system was found to work on par with the compressed oxygen cylinders.

To date, the technology has been transferred to 24 companies and around 35 units have been supplied to various hospitals. Recently, the government of Karnataka issued a circular for the provision of two units each to 2,508 public health centers by licensees, a press release said.

Another solution to meet the needs of hospitals is a technology-based oxygen generation system developed by an IISc team including researchers Arashdeep Singh and Anand M Shivapuji, and led by S Dasappa, professor at the Center for Sustainable Technologies. The process is based on an oscillating twin bed adsorption system integrated with storage and discharge vessels, and various safety systems. In one of the variants, a cylinder filling mechanism has also been incorporated using a booster pump. The oxygen produced meets the quality requirements prescribed by the Indian Pharmacopoeia and can be used in ICU / CCU / OT and other clinical services. Last month, the first unit based on this system was installed at Pobbathi Medical Center in Bengaluru.

On August 15, 2021, Professor Rangarajan, Director of IISc, inaugurated an open source design for a medical oxygen generation system with a capacity of 50 LPM. The system will be installed at St Mary’s Polyclinic in Lucknow. A unique feature of this system is the ability to fill up to ten 47-liter bottles at a pressure of 200 bar in 24 hours, in addition to supplying oxygen to patient beds. Preparations are underway to ship the system to Lucknow Hospital.

The IISc has also signed technology transfer agreements with four agencies across the country for the installation of oxygen generation systems at different capacities (50 LPM-1000 LPM) to meet the requirements of hospitals.

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Cool New Technique Enables Easier Property Measurements of Key Particles http://snippets.pro/cool-new-technique-enables-easier-property-measurements-of-key-particles/ http://snippets.pro/cool-new-technique-enables-easier-property-measurements-of-key-particles/#respond Wed, 25 Aug 2021 15:06:29 +0000 http://snippets.pro/cool-new-technique-enables-easier-property-measurements-of-key-particles/

Scientists from the BASE collaboration, led by scientists from RIKEN, have developed a new cooling method that will make it easier to measure a property of protons and antiprotons called the magnetic moment. This is one of the properties that is being studied to solve the mystery of why our universe contains matter but almost no antimatter.

Our universe should, according to the Standard Model, have equal amounts of matter and antimatter, but in reality it doesn’t. To find out why, scientists around the world are trying to uncover tiny differences between the two that could solve the mystery. One promising avenue is to explore whether there are differences in the magnetic moment of the proton and the antiproton, and the BASE experiment, based at CERN, is trying to determine this. Using a sophisticated device – a Penning trap capable of capturing and detecting a single particle – the BASE team has in the past succeeded in improving the accuracy of measurements of the magnetic moments of protons and antiprotons of a factor thirty and over three orders of magnitude, respectively, leading to a test for matter / antimatter symmetry at the 1.5 parts in a billion level, essentially finding that the magnets in the proton and antiproton are nine-digit similar significant!

One difficulty among many in performing such experiments is that to measure magnetic moments accurately, the particles must be maintained at temperatures near absolute zero, -273.15 ° C. In previous experiments, cold temperatures were prepared using a technique known as “selective resistive cooling”, which is time consuming and, according to researchers, “similar to rolling a die with 100 faces, trying to roll. a 1”.

For the current experiment, published in Nature, the BASE collaboration reported the very first demonstration of ‘sympathetic cooling’ of a single proton by coupling the particle to a cloud of laser-cooled 9Be + ions. Sympathetic cooling involves using lasers or other devices to cool one type of particle, and then using those particles to transfer heat from the particle they want to cool. With this technique, the group simultaneously cooled a resonant mode of a tuned macroscopic superconducting circuit with laser-cooled ions, and also achieved sympathetic cooling of a single trapped proton, reaching temperatures near absolute zero.

The technique described in the recent article is an important first step towards drastically reducing the faces on the dice collector, with the vision of ideally reducing the surface to one. “We report an important first step, and further development of this method will ultimately lead to an ideal spin-tilt experiment, in which a single low-temperature proton will be prepared in just a few seconds. This will allow us to determine the spin state of the particle in a single measurement which takes about a minute, ”explains Christian Smorra, one of the scientists leading the study. “This is considerably faster than our previous magnetic moment measurements and will improve both the sampling statistics and the resolution of our systematic studies,” adds Matthew Bohman, doctoral student at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and premier author to study it.

“In addition, the reported achievement has applications not only in proton / antiproton magnetic moment measurements. It adds general new technology to the toolbox of precision Penning trap physics, and also has potential applications in other nuclear magnetic moment measurements, ultra-precise comparisons of charge-to-mass ratios in traps. of Penning, or even in improving production. antihydrogen ”, adds Stefan Ulmer, spokesperson for the BASE collaboration and chief scientist of the RIKEN Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory.

The BASE collaboration runs three experiments, one at the CERN Antimatter Plant, one at the University of Hanover and one at the University of Mainz, the laboratory where the new method was actually implemented. The reported study is the result of collaboration between RIKEN, the German company Max Planck, the universities of Mainz, Hanover and Tokyo, the German metrology institute PTB, CERN and GSI Darmstadt. The work was supported by the Max Planck Center, RIKEN, PTB for time, constants and fundamental symmetries.

/ Public distribution. This material is from the original organization and may be ad hoc in nature, edited for clarity, style and length. See it in full here.

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Cipla manufacturing plant reopens after looting incident http://snippets.pro/cipla-manufacturing-plant-reopens-after-looting-incident/ http://snippets.pro/cipla-manufacturing-plant-reopens-after-looting-incident/#respond Wed, 25 Aug 2021 14:51:44 +0000 http://snippets.pro/cipla-manufacturing-plant-reopens-after-looting-incident/

As South Africa grapples with the aftermath of recent civil unrest and violent looting, Cipla’s manufacturing plant in Durban – which was sadly hit during the turmoil – stands ready to reopen and resume operations .

Some media have falsely claimed that the facility burned down, when it was in fact vandalized on July 13, 2021. Fortunately, none of the more than 500 Cipla employees working at the plant were injured in the incident. .

After the looting incident, Cipla put in place adequate emergency measures, such as operating its global supply chain and other manufacturing sites, to ensure the continuity of the supply of medicines, especially for key therapeutic areas such as antiretrovirals for people living with HIV. From an inventory perspective, Cipla also had a good amount of buffer stock in its other distribution centers across the country, which helped mitigate any possible supply disruptions.

Cipla South Africa CEO Paul Miller (right) at the Durban facility, which is back up and running

Cipla South Africa CEO Paul Miller said: “The staff at Cipla have shown an indomitable spirit and have worked tirelessly to ensure that we can resume operations as quickly as possible at this facility. We were also fortunate to have the support of various other actors in the local community who helped in the aftermath of this incident.

“Whatever the circumstances, we are committed to our ‘Take Care of Life’ philosophy, and the rapid turnaround time to get this site back up and running is proof of that,” Miller said. Cipla employed five subcontractors to expedite the intensive cleaning operation and repair process at this Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certified facility.

Localized industry is one of the most effective stimulators of economic growth and job creation. Therefore, as a proudly South African pharmaceutical manufacturing company, Cipla is focused on an “Africa for Africa” strategy. Cipla’s footprint spans the entire African continent: in addition to the Durban factory, Cipla also has a factory in Johannesburg and another manufacturing facility in Uganda. It aims to equip various regions with its own manufacturing capacities and invests in upgrading the technological capabilities of these factories to improve production capacity, stimulate digital innovation and ensure patients have uninterrupted access to quality medicines and affordable.

By actively creating employment and skills development opportunities, the result is more than just economic growth; it is to offer better health to patients and to ensure the socio-economic well-being of communities.

Manufacturing industry in particular stimulates more economic activity in society than any other sector. This globally recognized multiplier effect creates employment opportunities, demand for resources, investment and development opportunities. This invaluable stimulating effect on economic growth is attributed to the many important links between manufacturing and most other sectors of the economy.

Therefore, in addition to ensuring the continuity of drug supply, it was also essential that Cipla resume operations as quickly as possible at the affected manufacturing facility.


About Cipla:

Founded in 1935, Cipla is a global pharmaceutical company focused on agile and sustainable growth, complex generics and a deepening portfolio in our home markets of India, South Africa, North America and the United States. main regulated and emerging markets. Our strengths in the respiratory, antiretroviral, urological, cardiological, anti-infective and CNS segments are well known.

Our 46 manufacturing sites around the world produce more than 50 dosage forms and more than 1,500 products using advanced technology platforms to serve our more than 80 markets. Cipla is ranked third in pharmaceuticals in India, third in private pharmaceutical market in South Africa, and among the most widely distributed generic players in the United States.

For more than eight decades, making a difference for patients has inspired all aspects of Cipla’s work. Our paradigm shift offering of triple HIV antiretroviral therapy for less than a dollar a day in Africa in 2001 is widely recognized as having helped put inclusiveness, accessibility and affordability at the center of the movement. HIV.

As a responsible corporate citizen, Cipla’s humanitarian approach to healthcare in pursuit of its goal of “Caring for Life” and deep-rooted community ties wherever it operates make it a partner of choice for global health organizations, peers and all stakeholders.

For more, please visit Cipla, or click Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn.

About Cipla South Africa:

Cipla Medpro South Africa (Pty) Limited (Cipla Medpro) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cipla Limited, India (Cipla) and the third largest private sector pharmaceutical company in South Africa. Through Cipla’s philosophy of “Caring for Life”, Cipla Medpro produces world-class medicines at affordable prices for the public and private sectors, thus advancing health care for all South Africans.

For more information visit www.cipla.co.za


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Transform with technology: the workplace of the future http://snippets.pro/transform-with-technology-the-workplace-of-the-future/ http://snippets.pro/transform-with-technology-the-workplace-of-the-future/#respond Wed, 25 Aug 2021 11:30:21 +0000 http://snippets.pro/transform-with-technology-the-workplace-of-the-future/

PRIVACY NOTICE

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Generally, the personal information we collect from you is used to download the documents you have requested.

We strive to protect your personal information with an appropriate level of security and to retain it for as long as we need it for legitimate business or legal reasons. We will then safely remove it. For more information on how JLL processes your personal data, please see our privacy statement.

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AXIM BIOTECHNOLOGIES: Discussion and analysis by management of the financial situation and operating results. (form 10-Q) http://snippets.pro/axim-biotechnologies-discussion-and-analysis-by-management-of-the-financial-situation-and-operating-results-form-10-q/ http://snippets.pro/axim-biotechnologies-discussion-and-analysis-by-management-of-the-financial-situation-and-operating-results-form-10-q/#respond Mon, 23 Aug 2021 19:33:55 +0000 http://snippets.pro/axim-biotechnologies-discussion-and-analysis-by-management-of-the-financial-situation-and-operating-results-form-10-q/

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION




We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other
information required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the
"Exchange Act"), with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). You
may read and copy any document we file with the SEC at the SEC's public
reference room located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549, U.S.A.
Please call the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public
reference room. Our SEC filings are also available to the public from the SEC's
internet site at http://www.sec.gov.



On our website, http://www.aximbiotech.com, we post the following recent filings as soon as reasonably possible after they are filed electronically or provided to the SECOND: our annual reports on Form 10-K, our quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, our current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports filed or provided in accordance with section 13 (a) or 15 ( d) of the Foreign Exchange Law.

When we use the terms “AXIM”, “Company”, “we”, “our” and “we”, we mean Axim Biotechnologies, Inc., a Nevada company, and its consolidated subsidiaries, taken as a whole, as well as any predecessor entity, unless the context indicates otherwise.



                           FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS



This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the other reports, statements, and
information that the Company has previously filed with or furnished to, or that
we may subsequently file with or furnish to, the SEC and public announcements
that we have previously made or may subsequently make include, may include, or
may incorporate by reference certain statements that may be deemed to be
"forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities
Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended, and that are intended to enjoy the
protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements provided by that
Act. To the extent that any statements made in this report contain information
that is not historical, these statements are essentially forward-looking.
Forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as
"anticipate", "estimate", "plan", "project", "continuing", "ongoing", "expect",
"believe", "intend", "may", "will", "should", "could", and other words of
similar meaning. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that
cannot be predicted or quantified and, consequently, actual results may differ
materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements.
Such risks and uncertainties include, without limitation, marketability of our
products; legal and regulatory risks associated with trading publicly; our
ability to raise additional capital to finance our activities; the future
trading of our common stock; our ability to operate as a public company; our
ability to protect our proprietary information; general economic and business
conditions; the volatility of our operating results and financial condition; our
ability to attract or retain qualified senior management personnel and research
and development staff; and other risks detailed from time to time in our filings
with the SEC, or otherwise.



Information regarding market and industry statistics contained in this report is
included based on information available to us that we believe is accurate. It is
generally based on industry and other publications that are not produced for
purposes of securities offerings or economic analysis. Forecasts and other
forward-looking information obtained from these sources are subject to the same
qualifications and the additional uncertainties accompanying any estimates of
future market size, revenue and market acceptance of products and services. We
do not undertake any obligation to publicly update any forward-looking
statements. As a result, investors should not place undue reliance on these
forward-looking statements.



Overview



Axim Biotechnologies, Inc., a Nevada corporation, was originally incorporated in
the State of Nevada on November 18, 2010, under the name AXIM International,
Inc. On July 24, 2014, we changed our name to AXIM Biotechnologies, Inc. to
better reflect our business operations. Our principal corporate headquarters are
located at 6191 Cornerstone Court, E., Suite 114, San Diego, CA 92121. Our
website address is www.aximbiotech.com. The information contained on, or that
can be accessed through, our website is not a part of this prospectus. The
trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this prospectus are the
property of their respective owners.



  34



The acquisition of Sapphire Biotech, Inc.

At March 17, 2020, the Company has entered into a share exchange agreement (“agreement”) with Sapphire Biotech, Inc., a Delaware Company (“Sapphire”) and all of the shareholders of Sapphire (collectively, the “Sapphire Shareholders”). Following the closing of the transaction, Sapphire became a wholly owned subsidiary of AXIM.

Ongoing operations following the acquisition of Sapphire Biotech, Inc.



Oncology


We continue to advance our mission of improving global cancer care through the
development of novel therapeutics for controlling metastatic cancer spread, and
diagnostics for early cancer detection, response to treatment, and for
monitoring post-treatment recurrence. We have made significant progress with the
development of additional anologs of SBI-183 licensed from Mayo Clinic and
Arizona State University.



We have been investigating the enzyme Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 (QSOX1), a
master regulator of extracellular matrix remodeling, and its overexpression by
tumor cells. Overexpression of QSOX1 has been unambiguously linked to promoting
tumor invasion and metastasis. One of the Company's co-founders, Dr. Douglas
Lake, has discovered that a small molecule SBI-183 inhibited the enzymatic
activity of QSOX1 and as a result suppressed tumor cell invasion in vitro and
metastasis of breast tumor cells in vivo. Through its medicinal chemistry
efforts the Company synthesized multiple structural analogs of SBI-183 and
unveiled SPX-1009 lead compound that demonstrated ten-fold improvement in
suppressing invasion and metastasis in several cancer models.



The Company believes that its therapeutic drug development strategy targeting
the metastatic spread is a unique, novel and pioneering approach to saving
lives. The near-term objective of the Company is to demonstrate the ability of
its lead anti-QSOX1 drug candidates to suppress tumor growth and metastasis and
to advance them into pre-clinical studies.



Additionally, the Company believes that QSOX1 has a significant potential to be
developed into an important biomarker for liquid biopsy cancer test. The Company
anticipates that ongoing diagnostic product development in 2020 will result in a
commercial prototype in early 2021 of a universal companion diagnostic to
measure the efficacy of any ongoing cancer treatments based on measuring QSOX1
levels. Ultimately, the Company aims to develop a blood test that makes possible
the early detection of cancer.



Covid-19



With the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, we began creating COVID-19 rapid
diagnostic tools, including multiple first-in-class COVID-19 neutralizing
antibody tests and other innovations. AXIM's rapid diagnostic test for detecting
neutralizing antibodies is the first of its kind. The test has the ability to
deliver results in under 10 minutes and can detect the level of neutralizing
antibodies an individual has. We have designed this test to be used at
point-of-care facilities to measure levels of neutralizing antibodies in
convalescent plasma so that plasma with the highest levels of neutralizing
antibodies can be identified and administered to patients fighting COVID-19.
Without this knowledge, many patients could be undertreated with
non-neutralizing plasma and may not benefit from this treatment. Another
application of our point-of-care test is to help ensure that vaccines and
monoclonal antibody drugs elicit high levels of neutralizing antibodies. When a
vaccine is available, manufacturers can employ AXIM's rapid point-of-care test
to evaluate protective immune responses in vaccine recipients.



Our high throughput rapid neutralizing antibody test, NeuCovix-HT™, was designed
to solve a major issue that COVID-19 researchers are currently facing.
NeuCovix-HT™ solves the problem of vaccine and monoclonal antibody drug
manufacturers' requirement in Phase 3 clinical trials to measure neutralizing
antibody levels longitudinally in large groups of volunteer recipients using
expensive and laborious virus-based assays. Clinical centers participating in
the vaccine trials could employ NeuCovix-HT™ tests to measure neutralizing
antibodies from vaccine recipients in thousands of plasma samples per day and be
able to test all recipient's multiple times.



  35



As more of the population recovers from COVID-19, we believe NeuCovix-HT™ will
benefit clinical laboratories running batches of thousands of tests per week to
measure levels of neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent plasma.
NeuCovix-HT™ distinguishes which convalescent plasmas contain low and high
levels of neutralizing antibodies so that patients fighting COVID-19 can be
treated with plasma from donors with the highest levels of neutralizing
antibodies. We are in the process of sourcing materials and optimizing the test
and expect to finish in the first quarter of 2021.



As our scientific team was hard at work developing our COVID-19 rapid diagnostic
tests and virus-capturing face mask, we were frustrated by the delays and costs
caused by lack of supply of a recombinant virus binding protein (VBP) for
SARS-CoV-2 that was essential to our testing. To continue our projects as
planned and decrease overall costs, AXIM's talented team decided to make its own
VBP that is even more potent than current outsourced options. AXIM's laboratory
tests have proven the RBD spike protein binds with our novel VBP. Initial tests
also show that our novel VBP is approximately 10 times more potent and stable
than current VBP options on the market. This now in-house development of the
core ingredients needed to manufacture strips and masks could potentially derive
additional revenue and allows us to control our supply chain. We have already
manufactured enough VBP for millions of rapid diagnostic tests.



In August, we signed an exclusive licensing, manufacturing and distribution
agreement with Empowered Diagnostics LLC to execute the high volume production
of our rapid point-of-care diagnostic test. AXIM and Empowered have completed
the technology transfer and Empowered Diagnostics has built out their production
facility to be able to manufacture millions of our tests per month. As what we
believe to be the last step for the EUA application already filed with the FDA
for our plasma test we will be conducting a live virus comparison study on 30
plasma samples at a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL3) laboratory. As soon as this
comparison study is finished, we will amend the EUA and we expect to begin sales
and manufacturing immediately and we expect to see significant revenue shortly
thereafter.



We have also received Institutional Review Board approval to begin a clinical
study at Arizona State University with our point-of-care whole blood test as the
last step in what will be another EUA application. We hope to be the first
FDA-approved rapid point-of-care test for neutralizing antibodies.



Milestones 2020 to Date


On January 13, 2020, Sapphire Biotech enters into an agreement with Skysong
Innovations, LLC for an exclusive license to technology relating to SBI-183, an
anti-metastatic compound suppressing tumor cell growth and blocking metastasis
(and grants equity to Mayo Clinic Ventures and Arizona State University).



At February 6, 2020, Sapphire Biotech signs a sponsored research agreement (SRA) with Arizona State University conduct in vitro testing and preclinical in vivo animal studies on cancer inhibiting agents that will prevent metastasis.

At March 18, 2020, Axim Biotechnologies announces the acquisition of Sapphire Biotech.

On March 24, 2020, Sapphire announces the completion of in-vitro studieson the
new compound, SPX-1009 proving ten-fold greater inhibition of tumor metastasis
than parent compound SBI-183 following testing of over 80 analogs.



At March 27, 2020, Sapphire Biotech signs agreement with TD2 to initiate animal studies to assess the efficacy of SPX-1009 as an anti-metastatic treatment and to measure QSOX1 levels as a potential companion diagnostic test.

On July 15, 2020, AXIM announced the development of a rapid diagnostic test
measuring levels of functional neutralizing antibodies that are believed to
prevent SARS-CoV-2 from entering the host cells. Unlike currently available
serological COVID-19 tests that detect an antibody response to the virus, AXIM's
rapid 10-minute test measures a specific subpopulation of antibodies to block
binding of the virus to host cell receptors. While there are expensive, time
consuming laboratory tests that measure neutralizing antibodies, AXIM's
test differs in that it is a portable, low cost, rapid point-of-care test with
results in 10 minutes. Status: Ongoing



  36




On August 5, 2020, announced today the development, patent filing and Emergency
Use Approval (EUA) filing of NeuCovix-HT™, a high throughput (HT) patent-pending
diagnostic test that measures levels of functional antibodies in plasma or serum
that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Unlike current
serology tests for COVID-19 that qualitatively detect antibodies to the virus,
NeuCovix-HT™ quantitatively measures functional antibodies that block binding of
the virus to host cell receptors. Status: Ongoing



On August 11, 2020, Sapphire was awarded a $395,880 phase I Small Business
Innovation Research (SBIR) grant by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The
grant will support the continued development of novel small molecules that
inhibit the enzymatic activity of Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase I ("QSOX1") based
on a lead compound. QSOX1 is a tumor-derived enzyme that is important for cancer
growth, invasion and metastasis. Status: Ongoing



At Aug 24, 2020, Axim has signed an exclusive limited license, manufacturing and distribution agreement with Authorized diagnostics LLC (“Authorized diagnostics“) for the high volume production of the AXIM rapid diagnostic test measuring the levels of functional neutralizing antibodies that would prevent SARS-CoV-2 from entering host cells. Status: ongoing




On September 16, 2020, re filed the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)
application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for measuring COVID-19
neutralizing antibodies in plasma and serum through its first-in-class rapid
diagnostic test. Status: Ongoing



On September 22, 2020, Axim announced that the United States Patent and
Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued the Company a new Notice of Allowance for a
patent (Application No. 15/748,784) on anti-neoplastic compounds and methods
targeting Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1 (QSOX1), an enzyme important for tumor
cell growth, invasion and metastasis.



At September 29, 2020, Axim announced that it has filed a provisional patent for a first-class face mask that captures and deactivates SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Status: In progress

On September 30, 2020, Axim announced today that it has filed a provisional
patent for a recombinant virus binding protein (VBP) for SARS-CoV-2, the
coronavirus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, and is now
manufacturing the VBP. The Company no longer needs to rely on outside protein
supply to continue our research and can greatly cut down on our manufacturing
costs.


At December 3, 2020, we announced the development and filing of a patent for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (“ELISA”) -based diagnostic test for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Status: In progress

At February 3, 2021, we announced the launch of clinical trials for ImmunoPass, our rapid point-of-care test that semi-quantitatively measures levels of neutralizing antibodies against COVID-19. Status: In progress




On March 8, 2021, we announced that we had successfully completed point-of-care
clinical trials on our much awaited ImmunoPass rapid test that
semi-quantitatively measures levels of COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies to help
understand COVID-19 immunity, validate vaccine's effectiveness and estimate how
long the vaccine will be effective in patients.



At March 24, 2021, the Company, through Authorized diagnostics, has filed a UAE application with the FDA to measure COVID-19 neutralizing antibodies in whole blood for rapid point-of-care diagnostic testing. Status: In progress



Anticipated Expenses


Over the next twelve months, we expect to incur costs related to: (i) filing Exchange Act reports, (ii) contractual obligations, (iii) clinical trials and (iv) continuing research and development.



  37




Intellectual Property



I. QSOX1-RELATED INVENTIONS.



QSOX1 (Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 1) is an enzyme that is over-expressed in
multiple tumor types. Genetically silencing QSOX1 in tumors slows their growth,
migration, invasion and metastasis. Based on these findings, the inventors of
the inventions described below tested libraries of chemical compounds for the
ability to inhibit QSOX1. Several inhibitors of the QSOX1 enzyme were
identified. Initially, SBI-183 was identified and animal studies confirmed its
ability to suppress tumor growth. The inventors subsequently developed an entire
library of analogs of the parent compound, SBI-183, detailed in several
inventions below to identify compounds with greater inhibitory activity. These
compounds have the potential to be developed into therapeutic treatments for
metastasis and to be used in conjunction with other neoplastic treatments,
such
as chemotherapy.



Included in the group of QSOX1-related inventions below is the identification of
a specific splice variant of QSOX1, identified as QSOX1-L, as a unique Biomarker
for the detection of certain tumors overexpressing QSOX1. This biomarker formed
the basis for the invention relating to a Rapid Diagnostic Test for certain
cancers.



A. Antineoplastic compounds and methods targeting QSOX1

1. U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 218,732 filed on September 15, 2015

PCT Provisional Patent Application W02017048712A1

U.S. Non-Provisional Application No. 15 / 748,784 filed on Jan. 30, 2018

Dated patent authorization notice September 17, 2020

Title: Antineoplastic compounds and methods targeting QSOX1

Assignee: Mayo Clinic / Arizona State University

Exclusive licensee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




Compounds and methods involving inhibition of the enzymatic activity of QSOX1.
The compounds and methods can be used in treatment of neoplastic cells to
suppress tumor growth and invasion in a variety of cancers, including but not
limited to myeloma and cancers of the breast, kidneyand pancreas. Claims include
the compound SBI-183 as a neoplastic agent found to inhibit tumor growth,
invasion and suppress metastasis of tumors by inactivating QSOX1.



2. U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/916,065 filed on October 16, 2019

Title: Chemical compounds that inhibit QSOX1 for the treatment of cancer

Assignees: Arizona State University / Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




Derivatives of the parent compound SBI-183 have been identified as inhibiting
the enzymatic activity of QSOX1. These compounds can be used in treatment of
neoplastic cells by suppressing tumor growth and invasion in a variety of
cancers that overexpress QSOX1, including but not limited to myeloma and cancers
of the breast, kidney and pancreas.



3. US Provisional Patent Application No. 62/916,067 filed October 16, 2019

Title: Antineoplastic compounds and methods targeting QSOX1

Assignees: Arizona State University / Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.



  38



Exclusive licensee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.

Compounds that are structurally distinguishable from the compound, SBI-183 are
SPX-013 and SPX-014, and have been identified as inhibiting the enzymatic
activity of QSOX1. The compounds and methods can be used in treatment of
neoplastic cells by suppressing tumor growth and invasion in a variety of
cancers, including but not limited to myeloma and cancers of the breast, kidney
and pancreas.


4. US Provisional Patent Application No. 62/944/283 Filed December 5, 2019

Title: Antineoplastic compounds and methods targeting QSOX1

Assignees: Arizona State University / Sapphire Biotech, Inc.

Exclusive licensee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.

Compounds that are structurally distinguishable from the SBI-183 have been
identified as inhibiting the enzymatic activity of QSOX1. One in particular,
SPX-1009, also inhibits tumor cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro and
metastasis in a mouse model of triple negative breast cancer. This invention
concerns analogs of this lead compound SPX-1009. In in vitro testing, the lead
compound SPX-1009 and its analogs have been found to be more potent and to have
improved pharmacodynamics in mouse models of cancer.



5. U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62959752 Filed January 10, 2020

Title: Anti-neoplastic compounds and methods targeting QSOX1 and inhibiting cellular responses to the MET receptor.

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




Compounds and methods involving inhibition of the enzymatic activity of QSOX1
and methods of inhibiting cellular responses to the MET receptor signaling are
disclosed which include administering any one or more compounds or
pharmaceutical compositions. The compounds and methods can be used in treatment
of neoplastic cells, for example, to suppress tumor growth and invasion in a
variety of cancers, including but not limited to myeloma and cancers of the
breast, kidney and pancreas. The uniqueness of the invention relates to the
combined inhibition of QSOX1 and cellular responses to the MET receptor
signaling.



B. Unique biomarker QSOX1-L identified and rapid diagnosis for various cancers

1. United States Provisional Patent Application No. 62 / 829,556 Filed April 4, 2019;

Utility Patent Application No. 16 / 841,521 filed April 6, 2020

International patent application No. PCT / US2020 / 026936 filed April 6, 2020

Title: Systems and methods for rapid diagnosis of various cancers

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




QSOX1-L, a splice variant of QSOX1, has been identified as a novel biomarker of
bladder cancer and possibly other cancers in serum. Proprietary antibodies have
been generated that selectively detect only this variant and not others. QSOX1-L
has been used to develop a rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test for bladder
and possibly other urologic cancers from urine.



  39



II. INVENTIONS RELATED TO SARS-CoV-2

A. Rapid diagnostic test to measure levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV2

1.U.S. Provisional Application No. 63 / 023,646 filed May 12, 2020

Title: Test and treatment of convalescent plasma

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc. (Axim) and Arizona State University (KNEW)

Exclusive licensee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc. (ASU interest) Exclusive licensee: Authorized Diagnostics, Inc. (Axim’s interest)




The invention refers to a Rapid Test to measure levels of Neutralizing
Antibodies to SARS-CoV2. Unlike currently available serological COVID-19 tests
that detect an antibody response to the virus, the rapid 10-minute test measures
a specific subpopulation of antibodies that block binding of the virus to host
cell receptors. In contrast to current tests using live viruses which are
time-consuming, expensive and require trained personnel in a tightly controlled
laboratory setting to measure neutralizing antibodies, the rapid test is a
portable, low cost, rapid point- of-care test that measures levels of
neutralizing antibodies in 10 minutes.



2. US Provisional Application No. 63 / 144,454 filed February 1, 2021; United States Provisional Application No. 63 / 152,774 Filed February 23, 2021

Title: LFA rapid diagnostic test for measuring levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 from whole blood

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.

Exclusive licensee: Authorized Diagnostics, Inc.

The methods and test kits of the invention can be used with any sample in which the presence, absence and / or amount of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) against SARS-CoV-2 is to be determined, such as, for example, serum, plasma, all blood, saliva, mucus and other biological fluids. In a particular embodiment, the methods and / or kits of the invention are used with whole blood.

B. AlphaLisa test for high throughput detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV2

1. United States Provisional Application No. 63 / 060,635 Filed Aug 3, 2020; United States Provisional Application No. 63 / 061,112 Filed Aug 4, 2020

Title: NeuCovix-HT AlphaLisa test for the high throughput detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc. and Arizona State University (KNEW)

Exclusive licensee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc. (Interest of ASU)




The invention refers to an AlphaLisa assay for high throughput (HT) detection of
Neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Included in the claims is the HT
diagnostic test that measures levels of functional antibodies in plasma or serum
that neutralize SARS- CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID19. Unlike current
serology tests for COVID 19 that qualitatively detect antibodies to the virus,
the HT test quantitatively measures functional antibodies that block binding of
the virus to host cell receptors.



  40



C. Direct competitive ELISA for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-Cov2

1. United States Provisional Application No. 63 / 152,807 Filed February 23, 2021

Title: Direct competitive ELISA for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV2

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




The invention relates to a method for rapid detection of SARS-CoV2 Neutralizing
Antibodies in one of the following test samples: human or animal serum, plasma,
saliva, tear, sweat, exhaled breath condensate. The test sample is mixed with an
ACE2 label detection reagent. The sample mixture is incubated, and the quantity
of ACE2 label detection reagent bound to the RBD molecules indicates the
quantity of SARs-Co2 Neutralizing Antibodies.



D.ACE2 Variants


1. US provisional application No. 63 / 081.811 filed September 22, 2020



Title: Super-ACE2 Variants


Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




The invention relates to a new variant recombinant protein of ACE2 identified as
ACE2-614-Fc ("Super ACE2"), that is more potent and has a longer shelf life and
is more stable than wild type ACE2. Super ACE2 variant can be used in a variety
of ways as follows:


1) Development of competitive tests to neutralize antibodies that disrupt the RBD-ACE2 interaction.

2) Direct assays for peak virus antigens. Super ACE2 acts as a very specific antibody to capture Spike proteins across the RBD domain.

3) Cardiovascular, blood pressure and associated therapeutic and diagnostic disorders.

4) Anything related to virus capture such as (i) Mask treatments, (ii) Aerosols, (iii) Sprays and drops, (iv) Ointments and skin applications, (v) Surfaces

E. Facemask Having Enhanced Infectious Agent Capturing and Related Methods

1.U.S. Provisional Application No. 63 / 066,104 filed August 14, 2020

Title: Face mask having improved the capture of infectious agents and associated methods

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




The invention is a facemask with a filtration material and an infectious agent
capture-moiety. Infectious agent capture-moiety refers to any compound or
biomolecule that can bind to any infectious agent. The filtration material acts
as a scaffold to either directly block or impede the flow-through of the
infectious agent or to support the infectious agent capture moiety. The
infectious agent capture- moiety then functions to directly block or impede the
flow-through of an infectious agent. The infectious agent-capture moiety can
aerosolized and sprayed or applied onto pre-treated filtration material and can
be specific to capture infectious agents, such as SARS-CoV-2. In such
embodiments, the facemasks is capable of providing enhanced protection for the
user and to others from SARS-Co



  41




III. CANNABINOIDS


A. Polyfunctional cannabinoids

1. US Provisional Patent Application No. 3 / 014,471 filed 23 april 2020

Title: Polyfunctional cannabinoids

Assignee: Axim Biotechnologies, Inc.




The invention relates to cannabinoid constructs that may produce more potent
response than individual cannabinoid molecules with the additional benefit of
being more water- soluble and bioavailable.



Trade Secrets


We rely, in some circumstances, on trade secrets to protect our technology.
However, trade secrets can be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our
proprietary technology and processes, in part, by entering into confidentiality
agreements with our employees, consultants, scientific advisors and contractors.
We also seek to preserve the integrity and confidentiality of our data and trade
secrets by maintaining physical security of our premises and physical and
electronic security of our information technology systems. While we have
confidence in these procedures, agreements or security measures may be breached,
and we may not have adequate remedies for any breach. In addition, our trade
secrets may otherwise become known or be independently discovered by
competitors. To the extent that our consultants, contractors, or collaborators
use intellectual property owned by others in their work for us, disputes may
arise as to the rights in related or resulting know-how and inventions.



Market, customers and distribution methods

Our focus is on the development of innovative diagnostic and pharmaceutical
products focusing on diseases and conditions for which currently there are no
known efficient therapeutic ingredients or delivery systems. We plan to be an
active player in this field of biosciences with our extensive R&D and pipeline
of innovative products.



In August, we signed an exclusive licensing, manufacturing, and distribution
agreement with Empowered Diagnostics LLC to execute the high-volume production
of our rapid point-of-care diagnostic test. AXIM and Empowered have completed
the technology transfer and Empowered Diagnostics have built out their
production facility to be able to manufacture millions of our neutralizing
antibody tests for Covid-19 per month.



Competition


The biotech industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies,
intense competition, a strong emphasis on proprietary products and intellectual
property. While we believe that our scientific knowledge, technology, and
development experience provide us with competitive advantages, we face potential
competition from many different sources, including major pharmaceutical,
specialty pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions,
governmental agencies and public and private research institutions, some or all
of which may have greater access to capital or resources than we do. For any
products that we may ultimately commercialize, not only will we compete with any
existing diagnostic tests and therapies and those products currently in
development, but we will also have to compete with new technologies that may
become available in the future.



  42




We expect that the market will become increasingly competitive in the future.
Many of our competitors, either alone or together with their collaborative
partners, operate much larger research and development programs, and have
substantially greater commercial and financial resources than we do, as well as
significantly greater experience in: developing product candidates and
technologies, undertaking preclinical studies and clinical trials, obtaining FDA
and other regulatory approvals of product candidates, formulating and
manufacturing diagnostic products and drug candidates and launching, marketing
and selling these candidates. As a result, these companies may obtain marketing
approval more rapidly than we are able and may be more effective in developing,
selling, and marketing their products.



Source and availability of raw materials




As our scientific team was developing our COVID-19 rapid diagnostic tests and
virus-capturing face mask, we were frustrated by the delays and costs caused by
lack of supply of a recombinant virus binding protein (VBP) for SARS-CoV-2 that
was essential to our testing. To continue our projects as planned and decrease
overall costs, AXIM's team decided to make its own VBP. This now in-house
development of the core ingredients needed to manufacture our products allows us
to control our supply chain.



Government Regulation



On July 15, 2020, we announced the submission of an Emergency Use Authorization
("EUA") to the FDA for our rapid diagnostic test kit for the independent
detection of neutralizing antibodies in sera of patients who had been exposed to
the SARS-CoV-2 virus.



On August 5, 2020, announced the development, patent filing and Emergency Use
Approval (EUA) filing of NeuCovix-HT™, a high throughput (HT) patent-pending
diagnostic test that measures levels of functional antibodies in plasma or serum
that neutralize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Unlike current
serology tests for COVID-19 that qualitatively detect antibodies to the virus,
NeuCovix-HT™ quantitatively measures functional antibodies that block binding of
the virus to host cell receptors.



An EUA would allow us to market and sell the test without the need to pursue the
lengthy and expensive drug approval process. The FDA may issue an EUA during a
public health emergency if it determines that the potential benefits of a
product outweigh the potential risks and if other regulatory criteria are met.
If an EUA is granted for the test, we will rely on the FDA policies and guidance
in connection with the marketing and sale of the test. If these policies and
guidance change unexpectedly and/or materially or if we misinterpret them,
potential sales of the test could be adversely impacted. In addition, the FDA
may revoke an EUA where it is determined that the underlying health emergency no
longer exists or warrants such authorization. If granted, we cannot predict how
long an EUA for the test will remain in place. The termination of an EUA for the
test, if granted, could adversely impact our business, financial condition,
and
results of operations.



We may also seek additional EUAs from the FDA for our other product candidates
for the detection and/or treatment of COVID-19 and the SARS-CoV-2 virus. If
granted, the additional EUAs would allow us to market and sell additional
product candidates without the need to pursue the lengthy and expensive drug
approval process. There is no guarantee that we will be able to obtain any
additional EUAs. Failure to obtain additional EUAs or the termination of
such EUAs, if obtained, could adversely impact our business, financial
condition, and results of operations.



Employees



As of August 22, 2021, we have 4 full-time employees and 1 part-time employee.
We allow and utilize the services of independent contractors. We will be
considering the conversion of some of our part-time employees to full-time
positions. We are currently in discussions with qualified individuals to engage
them for positions in sales and marketing, research and development, and
operations. Management believes the Company has good relationships with its
employees.



Costs and effects of compliance with environmental laws

Costs related to compliance with environmental regulations are minimal.



  43




Results of Operations



The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations
for the period ended June 30,2021 should be read in conjunction with the
financial statements and the notes to those statements that are included
elsewhere in this Report on Form 10-Q. Our discussion includes forward-looking
statements based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties,
such as our plans, objectives, expectations, and intentions. Actual results and
the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in these
forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors. We use words such
as "anticipate", "estimate", "plan", "project", "continuing", "ongoing",
"expect", "believe", "intend", "may", "will", "should", "could", and similar
expressions to identify forward-looking statements.



Comparison of the completed six months and three months June 30, 2021 To June 30, 2020.

For the completed six-month periods June 30, 2021 and 2020, our revenue from continuing operations amounts to $ 47,524 and -0 $– respectively, our revenues from discontinued operations amount to -0 $– and $ 7,990, respectively.



                                      Six months        Six months
                                     Period Ended      Period Ended
                                      30-Jun-21         30-Jun-20         $ Change         % Change

Research and development            $    149,019      $    126,292      $    22,727           18.00 %
Depreciation                              13,184             5,124            8,060          157.30 %
Advertising and promotions               673,283           362,487          310,796           85.74 %
Travel and entertainment
expenses                                  29,032            14,349           14,683          102.33 %
Office/Other expenses                     69,142            73,698           (4,556 )         -6.12 %
Impairment and amortization              641,142             6,763          634,379         9379.46 %
Licenses and permits                      19,473            54,271          (34,798 )        -64.12 %
Legal and other fees                     178,404           221,882          (43,478 )        -19.60 %
Offices salary and wages                 503,335           294,399          208,936           70.97 %
Consulting fees                          440,865            33,000          407,865         1235.95 %
Compensation costs                       191,266             8,200          183,066         2232.51 %
Audit fees                                96,171            81,703           14,468           17.71 %
Filing fees                                5,619             4,898              721           14.72 %
Insurance expense                         46,627            62,166          (15,539 )        -25.00 %
Directors fees                            40,000            40,000               -             0.00 %
Total Operating expenses from
continuing operations               $  3,096,562      $  1,389,232      $ 1,707,330          122.90 %




Our operating expenses from continuing operations for the six months periods
ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, were $3,096,562 and $1,389,232, respectively. Our
operating expenses from discontinued operations for the six months periods ended
June 30, 2021 and 2020, were $4,633 and $357,430, respectively. The Company
incurred $440,865 and $33,000 of Consulting fees included in above table is the
largest changes are Impairment and Amortization of Other Assets of $641,142 this
include the three months of amortization of intangible asset and $325,115 is
because of the increase in Meeting and Conference during the six months ended
June 30, 2021 and 2020, respectively.



  44




For the three months periods ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, our revenues from
continuing operations totaled $14,875 and $-0-, respectively, our revenues from
discontinued operations totaled $-0- and $849, respectively.



                                     Three months      Three months
                                     Period Ended      Period Ended
                                      30-Jun-21          30-Jun-20         $ Change         % Change

Research and development            $     48,066      $     121,437      $   (73,371 )        -60.42 %
Depreciation                               6,834              4,285            2,549           59.49 %
Advertising and promotions               564,296             42,476          521,820         1228.51 %
Travel and entertainment
expenses                                  21,153              1,303           19,850         1523.41 %
Office/Other expenses                     37,094             30,348            6,746           22.23 %
Impairment and amortization              641,096              3,125          637,971        20415.07 %
Licenses and permits                       2,622              1,270            1,352          106.46 %
Legal and other fees                      87,759            134,014          (46,255 )        -34.51 %
Offices salary and wages                 248,154            189,399           58,755           31.02 %
Consulting fees                          366,446             24,000          342,446         1426.86 %
Compensation costs                        91,526                 -            91,526          100.00 %
Audit fees                                32,421             61,703          (29,282 )        -47.46 %
Filing fees                                4,838              3,508            1,330           37.91 %
Insurance expense                         23,608             30,994           (7,386 )        -23.83 %
Directors fees                            20,000             15,000            5,000           33.33 %
Operating expenses from
continuing operations               $  2,195,913      $     662,862      $ 1,533,051          231.28 %




Other (Income) expenses:


Our interest receivable for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, was $ 257, $ 513 and $ 158, $ 158, respectively.

Our Income Form Government Grants for the Completed Three and Six Months June 30, 2021 and 2020, was $ 129,995, $ 219,995 and -0 $-, -0 $– respectively, the increase in this account is due to the Company’s management studies.




The Company recorded a change in FMV of trading securities as unrealized gain
(loss) and realized gain (loss) of $-0-, $-0- and $-0-, $104,705 for from
discontinued operations the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020,
respectively, The changes for the six months period ended June 30, 2021, were
primarily due to cancel the trading securities in 2020.



Our interest expense of continuing operations for the three and six months ended
June 30, 2021 and 2020, was $59,576, $119,908 and $55,957, $106,075,
respectively. The changes for the three and six months period ended June 30,
2021, were primarily due to accretion of the convertible notes of TL-66.



  45


Going concern



The Company's unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been
presented assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As shown
in the financial statements, the Company has deficit in working capital of
$952,445 and has an accumulated deficit of $46,541,382, has cash used in
continuing operating activities of $1,156,360 and presently does not have the
resources to accomplish its objectives during the next twelve months. These
conditions raise substantial doubt about the ability of the Company to continue
as a going concern. The financial statements do not include any adjustments
related to the recoverability of assets and classification of liabilities that
might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue in operation.



The Company intends to raise additional capital through private placements of
debt and equity securities, but there can be no assurance that these funds will
be available on terms acceptable to the Company or will be sufficient to enable
the Company to fully complete its development activities or sustain operations.
If the Company is unable to raise sufficient additional funds, it will have to
develop and implement a plan to further extend payables, reduce overhead, or
scale back its current business plan until sufficient additional capital is
raised to support further operations. There can be no assurance that such a
plan
will be successful.


Net cash provided by / used in operating activities

Net cash used in continuing operating activities and discontinued operating
activities was $1,156,360 and $4,633 respectively for the six months ended June
30, 2021, as compared to net cash used of $1,012,678 and $797,939 for the six
months ended June 30, 2020. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 stock-based
compensation was $191,266 and amortization of debt discount was $203,121. For
the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 the Company recorded increase
(decrease) to accounts payable and accrued expenses $124,264 and $209,784 of
continuing operating activities.



The company realized a loss on extinguishment of debt of 1,535,264 and issued
common stock for services valued at 776,500 for the six months ended June 30,
2021.


Net cash provided by investing activities

Net cash used in (provided by) investing activities during the period ended June
30, 2021 was $(20,022) compared to $8,986 for the same period in 2020 due to
$79,814 cash acquired in Sapphire acquisition off set by cash used in equipment
purchase for $(70,828).


Net cash provided by financing activities

Net cash flow generated by financing activities during the six-month period ended
June 30, 2021, was $ 926,019 and $ 2,181,433 for the same period in 2020.

Off-balance sheet provisions




We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably
likely to have a current or future effect on our financial condition, changes in
financial condition, revenues or expenses, results of operations, liquidity,
capital expenditures or capital resources that is material to investors.



  46




Contractual Obligations


As a “small reporting company” within the meaning of Article 10 of the SK Regulation, the company is not required to provide this information.



Critical accounting policies



The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires
management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of
assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities and
the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reported periods. The
more critical accounting estimates include estimates related to revenue
recognition and accounts receivable allowances. We also have other key
accounting policies, which involve the use of estimates, judgments and
assumptions that are significant to understanding our results, which are
described in Note 3 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial
statements.



Recently published accounting standards

In March 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842) Codification
Improvements, which provides clarification on implementation issues associated
with adopting ASU 2016-02. The implementation issues noted in ASU 2019-01
include determining the fair value of the underlying asset by lessors that are
not manufacturers or dealers, presentation on the statement of cash flows for
sales-type and direct financing leases, and transition disclosures related to
Topic 250, Accounting Changes and Error Corrections. We will apply the guidance,
if applicable, as of January 1, 2019, the date we adopted ASU 2016-02. Refer to
the discussion of ASU 2016-02 below for the impact on our financial position,
results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.



The Company has a long-term operating lease, and the long-term operating lease
only took effect in April 2020. Thus, the adoption of ASC 842 had no impact on
the condensed consolidated financial statements.



In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-18, Collaborative Arrangements (Topic
818): Clarifying the Interaction Between Topic 808 and Topic 606, which
clarifies when transactions between participants in a collaborative arrangement
are within the scope of the FASB's revenue standard, Topic 606. The standard is
effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods
within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this
standard on its effective date of January 1, 2020. We do not expect the adoption
of this ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial position,
results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.



In October 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-17, Targeted Improvements to Related
Party Guidance for Variable Interest Entities, that changes the guidance for
determining whether a decision-making fee paid to a decision makers and service
providers are variable interests. The guidance is effective for fiscal years
beginning after December 15, 2019 and interim periods within those fiscal years,
with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard on its effective date of
January 1, 2020. The adoption of this ASU to have a material impact on our
consolidated financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or
presentation thereof.



  47




In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and
Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for
Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service
Contract. ASU 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation
costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the
requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain
internal-use software. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning
after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years,
with early adoption permitted. We adopted this standard on its effective date of
January 1, 2020. We determined that it had no material impact of this ASU on our
financial position, results of operations, cash flows, or presentation thereof.



In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued
Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2018-13, "Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820):
Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value
Measurement." This ASU eliminates, adds and modifies certain disclosure
requirements for fair value measurements as part of its disclosure framework
project. The standard is effective for all entities for financial statements
issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods
within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. The adoption of this
guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's financial
statements.


Other recent accounting positions issued by the FASB and the SECOND do not or are not considered by management to have a material impact on the current or future consolidated financial statements of the Company.

Foreign currency transactions

Our foreign exchange gains (losses) were $ 3,843, $ 3,995 for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 was $ 26 and $ 624 for the same period in 2020. All foreign exchange gains (losses) were related to discontinued operations.

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Actions discussed: (OTCPINK: $ GTCH) (NYSE: $ IBM) http://snippets.pro/actions-discussed-otcpink-gtch-nyse-ibm/ http://snippets.pro/actions-discussed-otcpink-gtch-nyse-ibm/#respond Mon, 23 Aug 2021 18:54:12 +0000 http://snippets.pro/actions-discussed-otcpink-gtch-nyse-ibm/

Point Roberts, WA and Vancouver, BC – August 23, 2021 (Investorideas.com Newswire) Investorideas.com (www.investorideas.com), a global source of investor news covering artificial intelligence (AI) brings you the today’s edition of The AI ​​Eye – monitoring stock market news, trade tracking and advancements in artificial intelligence – featuring tech company GBT Technologies Inc. (OTCPINK: GTCH).

Listen to today’s podcast:

AI Eye Podcast 594: Actions Discussed: (OTCPINK: $ GTCH) (NYSE: $ IBM)

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Listen to the AI ​​Eye on Spotify

Chronicle of the dayThe AI ​​Eye – Watch stock market news, trade tracking and artificial intelligence advancements

AI Eye Episode 594: GBT Tests NVIS Antenna Technology For Long Range Communication Infinia And IBM Unveils Telum Processor With On-Chip AI Acceleration

Actions discussed: (OTCPINK: GTCH) (NYSE: IBM)

GBT Technologies Inc. (OTC PINK: GTC) announced that it is now testing Near Vertical Incidence Skywave (NVIS) antenna technology for its Infinia long range communication. NVIS is described in the press release as “a type of ionospheric radio transmission that can be used to bridge gaps between line of sight and longer range hopping areas that are used on HF bands.” Company technical director Danny Rittman explained:

“This type of technology requires the use of unique antennas designed specifically for this type of communication. Typical HF radio antennas provide a much lower beam angle and therefore a specially designed antenna will be used.

These antennas provide a high transmission angle which is necessary for NVIS propagation. We will use horizontal dipoles and horizontally polarized loop antennas for system testing. The main challenge of an HF communication system is to cover dead zones. NVIS uses the difference in the responses of the elevation model approaching or reaching 90 degrees. Using this type of antenna technology with an appropriate frequency selection will potentially establish reliable communication to cover HF dead zones. Using AI algorithms, we aim to implement smart and auto-tuning antennas as well as frequency selection to achieve optimum auto performance and full coverage. In areas where there is no modern communication infrastructure, NVIS radio wave propagation can provide contact with the outside world enabling remote emergency response, telemedicine and communication in the modern world, including the Internet. .

IBM (NYSE: IBM) To unveiled details of the upcoming Telum processor, which aims to bring deep learning inference to enterprise workloads, helping fight real-time fraud, and which will contain on-chip acceleration for AI inference while a transaction is in progress. An excerpt from the press release reads as follows:

The new chip features an innovative centralized design, which enables customers to harness the full power of the AI ​​processor for specific AI workloads, making it ideal for financial services workloads such as fraud detection, loan processing, clearing and settlement of transactions, the fight against money laundering and risk analysis. With these new innovations, customers will be able to improve fraud detection based on existing rules or use machine learning, speed up credit approval processes, improve customer service and profitability, identify transactions or transactions that are likely to fail and propose solutions to create a more efficient settlement. to treat.

Global AI in Food and Beverage Market to Reach $ 29.45 Billion by End of 2026

A report published by Facts and Factors finds that the global AI in food and beverage market will grow from $ 3.07 billion in 2020 to $ 29.45 billion by the end of 2026, registering a compound annual growth rate (CAGR ) by approximately 45.7% over the forecast period 2021-2026. An excerpt from the report summary describes the factors driving the market growth:

Artificial intelligence (AI) in the food and beverage market is expected to be driven by the growing need to analyze consumer purchasing behavior and forecast inventory levels to reduce food waste. The growing need for AI implementation to improve supply chain processes is expected to drive AI in the food and beverage market during the forecast period. In addition, the increase in research and development activities, as well as the modernization and technological advancements of devices used to monitor artificial intelligence in the food industry, will create new opportunities for artificial intelligence in the market. food and drink during the forecast period.

Sam Mowers, Investorideas.com

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Disclaimer / Disclosure: Investorideas.com is a digital publisher of third party equity news, articles and research and creates original content including videos, interviews and articles. Original content created by Investorideas is protected by copyright laws other than syndication rights. Our site does not make any recommendations to buy or sell any stock, service or product. Nothing on our sites should be construed as an offer or a solicitation to buy or sell any products or securities. Any investment involves risks and possible losses. This site is currently paid for news publishing and distribution, social media and marketing, content creation and more. Disclosure is issued for every paid press release, content posted / created as necessary, but otherwise the news has not been paid and has been published for the sole benefit of our readers and subscribers. Contact the management and IR of each company directly for specific questions. More information on the disclaimer: https://www.investorideas.com/About/Disclaimer.asp Learn more about posting your press release and our other news feed services press Investorideas.com https://www.investorideas.com/News-Upload / and tickertagstocknews.com Global investors must comply with the regulations of each country. Please read the Investorideas.com privacy policy: https://www.investorideas.com/About/Private_Policy.asp

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This Kashmiri artist created an ancient map of Srinagar on fabric using the paper mache technique http://snippets.pro/this-kashmiri-artist-created-an-ancient-map-of-srinagar-on-fabric-using-the-paper-mache-technique/ http://snippets.pro/this-kashmiri-artist-created-an-ancient-map-of-srinagar-on-fabric-using-the-paper-mache-technique/#respond Mon, 23 Aug 2021 01:21:42 +0000 http://snippets.pro/this-kashmiri-artist-created-an-ancient-map-of-srinagar-on-fabric-using-the-paper-mache-technique/

Winner of four national awards and one international award, Maqbool Jan, an artist from the Lal Bazaar area in Srinagar, made an old map of the city on fabric using the technique of papier-mâché and watercolors.

The 56-year-old artist from Srinagar wants to see this work on display in the Indian Parliament.

“It took me two years to draw the ancient city map of Srinagar on a 5 x 7 foot white fabric using the papier mache technique. It will take another month to complete it, ”says Jan, who is a registered craftsman with the Department of Handicrafts.

He adds that his wish is to see his masterpiece exhibited in Parliament, the Kashmir Assembly or in a museum.

“The new generation should see our culture through our art. This would give a lot of impetus to the artisans of the Kashmir valley. Paper mache is the heart of our heritage, ”he says.

Maqbool Jan with his artwork showing the ancient map of the city of Srinagar

Jan tells Your story that the idea of ​​making the old map of the city of Srinagar came to his mind when he saw his city lose its glory due to the pollution of water bodies, encroachments and illegal constructions .

“Through this art, I send a stronger and clearer message that we must preserve our heritage. Kashmir is known for its natural beauty and pristine glory and we should try to protect it. “

Jan adds: “I want to show how our famous Dal Lake looked like ancient Srinagar, and what ancient Srinagar looked like. What our shrines, mosques and gardens looked like earlier. In order to boost the tourism sector, we need to take care of our tourist destinations. “

Jan was inspired to create this card from a shawl on display at the Srinagar Museum. The card on this shawl is drawn by Sozni job. Jan wanted to recreate the same with papier mache.

The art of papier-mâché

There is no such school where young people in the Kashmir valley learn the art of papier-mâché, but Jan has already tried to train dozens of students.

In his residence in the Mughal Mohalla district of Lal Bazar, Jan works alongside his colleague Firdous Hussain Jan and his wife. In one room Jan and his colleague are busy working on papier mache and in another room his wife paints the paper mache containers, glasses and other objects.

Soon after losing his father, Jan joined the art and created an unparalleled profession.

“Unfortunately, there is no institute where papier mache can be taught. For a long time, artists have called for a course to be set up by institutions in the Kashmir valley to elevate this art form, ”explains Jan.

In 2015, Maqbool won the National award for papier mâché and received the President’s Award of India at a grand ceremony in New Delhi honoring artisans from across the country.

With over 40 years of experience, Maqbool is a prolific painter and papier-mâché artist from Kashmir, having already won a State Prize in 2013.

Maqbool Jan is working on the old Srinagar city map with his colleague

Cashmere and papier-mâché art

Historically, the art of papier-mâché was introduced to Kashmir in the 15th century by a Kashmiri prince who had spent years in prison in Samarkand in Central Asia.

However, some believe that the history of papier-mâché in the region dates back to the 14th century, when a Muslim saint – Mir Syed Ali Hamdani, known as Shah-e-Hamdan – brought skilled artists to Kashmir from Persia. .

During the period of the Sultanate of Kashmir in the 14th century, large numbers of migrants, especially those from Persia and Central Asia, traveled to Kashmir and introduced many arts and crafts, according to historians.

The art of papier-mâché has been passed down orally from generation to generation. Today, papier-mâché artisans can still be found in the narrow lanes of downtown Srinagar.

A dying art form

Jan also laments that he does not earn enough from this art and called on the government to promote the art of papier mache so that artisans have a good life.

“I want the art of papier-mâché to reach our future generations, but I’m afraid young people will take an interest in it, given the paltry income that an artist is capable of generating. I have always asked the government to take care of the artists so that more crafts are created which will uplift the tourism sector in Jammu and Kashmir. I have always realized that tourists are fond of local crafts, ”he says.


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Can nuclear engineering be put back in the bottle? Must he? http://snippets.pro/can-nuclear-engineering-be-put-back-in-the-bottle-must-he/ http://snippets.pro/can-nuclear-engineering-be-put-back-in-the-bottle-must-he/#respond Sun, 22 Aug 2021 22:14:01 +0000 http://snippets.pro/can-nuclear-engineering-be-put-back-in-the-bottle-must-he/

David P. Barash is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Washington; his most recent book is Threats: bullying and its discontent (2020, Oxford University Press). Ward Wilson is Executive Director of RealistRevolt and author of Five myths about nuclear weapons (2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt).

“You can’t put genie back in the bottle.” Those of us keen to get rid of nuclear weapons often hear this and at first glance it seems true; common sense suggests that neither geniuses nor nuclear weapons are easily bottled up. But this “common sense” is singularly false. Technologies have appeared throughout human history and just as the vast majority of plant and animal species have finally disappeared, so have the vast majority of technological geniuses. They were only rarely detained or forcibly erased; almost always, they were simply abandoned once people recognized that they were ineffective, dangerous, outdated, or sometimes just plain stupid.

So don’t be fooled by the over-repeated assertion by “defense intellectuals” that we cannot put nuclear engineering back in its bottle. We don’t have to. A lot of lousy technologies have simply been abandoned. The first big wheel bikes, called penny-farthings in England because their huge front wheel and tiny rear wheel looked like a penny next to a farthing, were very popular in the 1870s and 1880s. They were not only tough. to climb, but dangerous to fall. No one has had to uninvent them.

Between 1897 and 1927, the Stanley Motor Carriage Company sold over ten thousand Stanley Steamers, automobiles powered by steam engines. The two technologies are now funny curiosities, reserved for museums. Maybe the “transport intellectuals” warned at the time that you couldn’t put the Stanley Steamer or the penny farthing geniuses back in their bottles.

Technological determinism – the idea that an objective technological reality decides what technologies exist – seems compelling. After all, we can’t uninvent something that applies to nuclear weapons just as much as it does to penny-farthings and Stanley Steamers. But to say that nuclear weapons will always be with us because they cannot be uninvented is like saying that I will always be alive because I cannot be born.

Pessimists attached to the myth of disinvention argue that nuclear weapons can never be done away with because as long as knowledge of how to build them exists, things themselves will always exist. Inventing something is conceived as a one-way process in which the crucial step is the moment of invention. Once this line is crossed, there is no turning back.

Again, this is superficially plausible. After all, it almost always happens that once knowledge is created or ideas are promulgated, they rarely disappear. But there is a crucial difference between knowledge and ideas on the one hand, and technology on the other. Human beings do not conserve technology (except sometimes in museums) as they conserve knowledge in libraries, textbooks and cultural traditions.

Bad ideas can linger in libraries, but they won’t continue in the real world. Physicist Edward Teller, “father of the hydrogen bomb,” had bad ideas. He demanded, for example, that H-bombs be used to melt arctic ice in order to dig seaports and also to free the Northwest Passage, while other physicists, including Freeman Dyson, have spent years on Project Orion, hoping to design a rocket that would be powered by a successive series of nuclear explosions. Crap ideas should not be forgotten and given up.

Useless, dangerous or outdated technology does not need to be forced to disappear. Once something is no longer useful, it is rightly and unceremoniously ignored.

To understand how nuclear weapons could fit into this mold and be eliminated, let’s look for a moment at technologies more generally, and how they disappear. Venture capitalists, for example, realize that new technologies do not become permanent the moment they are invented, nor do they disappear because they have been uninvented. Technologies have a life cycle whose two ends are not birth and death, but adoption and abandonment.

A new device can be quite awesome, but if it isn’t widely used it won’t persist; certainly, it will not live forever just because it was invented. Technologies disappear when enough people decide to abandon them. This also applies to weapons. Stone axes did not disappear because people could no longer make them or because our ancestors ran out of stone. Iron has replaced bronze, steel has replaced iron; spears, blowguns, bows and arrows, matchlocks, blunderbusses, the gatling machine gun: each has died out because it was simply abandoned, and for good reasons.

Consider hand mortar. Developed in the 1600s, these rifles (much like a sawn-off, wide-barreled shotgun) were meant to fire an explosive grenade at an opponent. Back then, however, the triggers that could ignite on impact hadn’t been developed yet, so hand mortar relied on a somewhat complicated process: you prime the gun, put it down, grab it. grenade (carefully), light its fuse, stuff into the muzzle of the pistol and pushed it all the way down the barrel, picked up the pistol, aimed and fired.

In theory, hand mortars should have been effective weapons. But there were a lot of things that could go wrong, and that’s what happened. The fuse could hit the grenade and detonate it in the barrel. Or the fuse could double on itself when driven into the barrel, shortening the burn time, causing it to explode in the barrel again. The gun could misfire, leaving the grenade in the barrel, where it would eventually explode. (Neither event was healthy for the firing soldier.) The shock of the shot could separate the fuse from the grenade, rendering it no more lethal than a thrown stone. If you misjudged the amount of powder needed to fire the grenade from the pistol incorrectly, it could either drop the grenade at your feet or a few feet away among your own troops, or send it far above the sea. head. of your opponents.

In practice, there was too much that could go dangerously wrong with hand mortars, so that ultimately killing a group of enemy soldiers if all went well was not worth the many risks involved. Even if hand mortars had been invented, and even if any madman who wanted to could have armed his forces with them, they had negligible impact on combat. They have never been banned or uninvented. Being a technology that is both dangerous and of little use, they have simply been abandoned.

What about nuclear weapons? They are certainly dangerous, since deterrence cannot persist indefinitely without failing one day. Bertrand Russell noted that one can imagine watching a tightrope walker swinging in the air for five minutes, or even fifteen, but for an entire year? Or a hundred years? At the same time, nuclear weapons have never been very useful, if at all, except for the benefit of the few individuals, civilians and military alike, whose careers have benefited from their design, development and deployment.

So why is it not possible to imagine that they will be abandoned – just like other dangerous and essentially unnecessary technologies? They could easily disappear even if the memory of their making persists.

So yes, nuclear weapons cannot be uninvented. But the way to eliminate the danger is not to imagine that they are imbued with magical powers; it’s more about understanding that they were never a great technology to start with. Or, to the extent that they are bad geniuses, to recognize that it is not necessary to put them back in their bottles. They can be dropped on their own weight or they can just rot.

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